Sandra ((August 2016) International Women's Health and Human Rights)
Last Seen:  October 12, 2016 @ 11:34 PM

Modesto, United States
Job:  Social justice volunteer
Member Since:  August 05, 2016
Posts:  26
Bio:  Non profit youth development founder/CEO (12 years), marketing and strategic planning consultant, prior sales and health care management, Mother two adult children and passionate social justice volunteer
Sandra 's Recent Activity (answers and comments)
October062016 In response to:  Conclusion – Reflecting back and making a difference  (Comment)
Nicely written and I agree ...we need to be more vocal about women rights in every country and area!
September092016 In response to:  Why did Mrs. X Die?  (Comment)
Some of these problems actually do exist in somewhat remote, isolated areas of the Silcon Valley. I suggest you check out parts of East Palo Alto, the tenderloin of San Francisco and some of the poor areas in San Jose. Not all women the Bay Area especially poor women have immediate and adequate access to education, nutritional supplements, early continuous care in pregnancy and so forth. Research these issues a little further and you will be surprised.
September082016 In response to:  From Outrage to Courage  (Comment)
Also appreciate all the recommendations!
September082016 In response to:  Lesbian Health  (Comment)
I also appreciated the opportunity to review an article regarding Lesbian Human Rights Issues. Several points that Rebecca also eludes to were quite revealing regarding the effect of the "closet", as well as higher cancer rate incidences and its possible basis including lower and later rates of childbearing. It especially concerned me that lesbians also were not included in many of the studies and proposals that feminist groups undertake, indicating a bias against lesbian even in feminist circles.
September082016 In response to:  Safe abortion in Nepal - views on the video  (Comment)
I also agree that so much emphasis seemed to be on abortion without adequate information about other forms of birth control. Being unaware of Nepal perhaps other alternative approaches are impractical and also the main concern of the country was in fact to address their abnormally high maternal death rates caused by unsafe abortions. Therefore the video's focus did need to be more exclusive to safe abortion procedures.
September032016 Terms for Female Genital Mutilation  (Answer)
The three different terms used for female genital cutting reflect the different understandings of or attitudes towards this practice. According to our readings, the term commonly used today by WHO and international agencies especially since the 19980s-1990s –is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).  FGM reflects our more recent understanding, that female genital cutting is a fundamental violation of a girl’s human rights, a violation of her bodily integrity and speaks to the emphasis on human rights since the 1980s. Female Genital Mutilation also carries an emotional disdain and revulsion against these practices The term FGM covers all types of female cutting from minor cutting and partial infliction of damage to full removal including surrounding tissues and even partial closure of the vagina. On the other hand, because FGM is very prevalent and a deeply held cultural “rite of passage” in a number of African countries, it is considered insensitive to use such a graphic term.  Therefore, the term female cutting is more generally used in day to day practice. When a practice was never previously questioned or considered harmful by female leaders one should be sensitive of a society’s prior cultural norms especially when you are hoping to change this deeply held and prevalent practice. The term female circumcision used more often in prior decades before the 1960s implies that female cutting somehow is similar to male circumcision which is not the case. All types of female cutting inflict permanent physical damage on the female sexual organ the clitoris (to a minor or major degree). In the case of male circumcision only an exterior skin portion separate from the male’s sexual organ is removed without any permanent damage to the sexual organ. Therefore female circumcision should not be used when referring to FGM. Finally as I read and heard more of these videos, it became clear that I did not have a true appreciation of how accepted and ingrained FGM was in certain countries and areas.  This practice was fully accepted with many misunderstood and incorrect rationales for its justification.  Therefore as Isha from Sierra Leone suggests we should be certain to elicit the support and encouragement of the recognized female leaders of these societies while sensitively advocating for the end of FGM. 

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